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Old Kansas Indian Town 

The Missouri 



Member of 

International Society of Archaeologists 
National Geographic Society, Ktc. 

Gift of C. A. Kofoid 

I H 

Old Kansas Indian Town 

The Missouri 



Plymouth, Iowa 


EN FURIES ago mention was made by the French explorers 
of the large or main village of the "Quans" on the southwest 
bank of the Missouri river, about thirty leagues above the mouth of 
the "Quans" river. The Quans were the Kansa or Konza Indians 
from whom the state of Kansas derived its name. They were visit 
ed by De Bourgmont, in 1724, while on his famous expedition to the 
Fadoucas. The exact location of this noted old village of Bourg- 
mont s time, heretofore, has never been defin itely determined, al 
though the ruins of the old town on the Missouri were observed and 
mentioned by explorers and travelers for many years subsequent ta 
the early French explorations. 

Professor Dunbar apparently, authentically, has designated At- 
chison, Kansas as the site of the old village, while Kansas historians 
generally evade the question by vaguely referring to the old Kaw 
village "at" or "near the present site of Atchison, which is based 
merely on an approximation of the distance above the Kansas and 
Little Platte rivers, without taking into consideration the topograph 
ical and other features so essential in determining such matters. 
After carefully studying all available data bearing on the subject, 
including the chronicles of most of the early explorers who mention 
the old village, and inoroughly examining the whole region along 
the Missouri river north 01 the Kansas, 1 have concluded that the 
nistoric old town of Doniphari, five miles north of the city of Atchi 
son, was the prehistoric capital of tne Kaws. The historical, topo 
graphical and archaeological evidence adequately sustains such an 
opinion. Before going into details I will succinctly give a few of 
til? more important reasons for my belief that the old Kansas vil 
lage was so located. 

First Doniphan corresponds approximately with the distances 
i hat the early explorers place the old village above the Kansas and 
Little Platte rivers, and other defin Ite points on the Missouri. 

Second -Lewis and Clark, and other explorers, who saw there- 
laains of the old town explicitly state that it was a mile, or a little 
above Independence creek. 

Third Doniphan is the most ideal situation for an Indian vil 
lage in that region, and the only desirable site for such a stewithin 
a mile of Independence creek to the north. 

Fourth The fine prairies, which may be seen from points sev 
eral miles below; the bend in the river, and other natural features 
at or near the old village site as recorded by the early explorers are 
identifiable with the present townsite of Doniphan and vicinity. 

Fifth The large amount of archaeological material, the prehis 
toric relics, the graves and other such remains found at Doniphan 
and vicinity indicate unmistakably that it was an important seat of 
aboriginal occupancy. 

Sixth Old settlers of undoubted reliability have seen on the 
Doniphan townsite numerous hut rings or lodge circles of an anci 
ent Indian village, and from their descriptions of the same they 
were exactly similar to those of the later day villages of the Kansas 
Indians at Manhattan, Valencia, Council Grove and other places, de 
noting tha hemispheric earthen huts that these Indians are known 
to have always constructed as their dwelling places. 

In the summer of 1724 Captain Ecienne Veagard deBourgmont, 
military com mander of the colony of Louisiana, set out on an over 
land expedition from Fort Orleans to the village of the Kansas Ind 
ians, on the Missouri river, and from there to the province of Pad- 
oucas, or what is now known as the Comanche tribe of Indians, in 
what is now Western Kansas. Bourgmont was accompanied by 
Ensign Bellerive, Sieur Philip Renaudiere, mining engineer and dir 
ector general of mines for the colony of Louisiana, five soldiers, three 
Canadians, servants and 176 Missouri and Osage Indians command 
ed by the grand chief of the former tribe. Bourgmont had previous 
ly dispatched to the Kansas village several boatloads of merchandise 
under command of Lieutenant Saint-Ange and guarded by eleven 
soldiers. On tli2 afternoon of July 7, 1724, B our gn on t s party ar 
rived on the east bank of the Missouri river, opposite the village of 
the Kansas. The next morning they crossed in a pirogue, the 
horses being swam over and the Indians transported on rafts. "We 
debarked/ says Bourgmont, "within gunshot distance of of the vil 
lage where we camped." Bourgmont s arrival was made an ocasion 
of much demonstration. From July 8 to 24 the time was spent in 
feasting, powwows, trading horses and peltries, making presents to 
the Indians and getting ready for the journey to the Padoucas. The 
river detachment arrived July 19. On the 24th the "grand departure 
was made, or to use the words of Bourgmont, "we put ourselves in 
battle array on the hight of th? village, the drum began to beat the 
march and we marched away." The strange procession consisted 

of Bourgmont s force, 300 Indian warriors with two grand chiefs and 
fourteen war chiefs, 300 Indian women, 500 Indian children and 500 
dogs carrying and draging provisions, etc. The object of the ex 
pedition was to induce the Padoucas, who were friendly to the Span 
ish, to enter into a treaty of peace and an alliance with the Missouri. 
Kansas, Osage, Otoe and Iowa tribes, allies of the French, with 
whom they (the Paducas) were at war. Bourgmont reached the 
main village of the Padoucas October 18, 1724. A peace treaty and 
alliance was effected and the party returned to Fort Orleans, arriv 
ing November 5, 1724. 

Bourgmont is very indefinite as to the location of the Kaws, 
but Renoudiere, in his memorandum of the expedition, says that 
thirty leagues above the "Quans" river "a small river flowing from 
the north is found; here is the great village of the Quans, consisting 
of 150 lodges adjoining the Missouri. There are fine prairies to the 
south and many m:>j itains to the west." It is evident that this 
chronicler of the Bourgmont expedition mistook Rock creek for the 
main continuation of Independence creek. The general course of 
the Independence is from a westerly direction, but about a mile and 
a half above its mouth it takes a sharp turn to the south, flowing 
straight in this direction lor nearly a mile when it makes another 
acute turn to the east for about one-half of a mile to its mouth. 
That part of the channel extending north and south is almost on a 
straight line with that of Rock creek, the merging of the Independ 
ence basin with that of Rock creek making a clearly defined valley 
much more prominent than the main valley of Independence from 
Rock creek westward. Corning as it does from the prairie the Inde 
pendence valley at this point is not so noticeable as that of Rock 
creek which is bordered by high hills, or many mountains," as Re- 
rioudiere saw fit to term the prominent elevations lying west of the 
Kansas village. Any person not acquainted with the country, look 
ing north from near the mouth of the Independence would readily 
cake the valley of Rock creek for the main trend or continuation of 
Independence valley. The "fine prairies," mentioned by Renoudiere 
are readily noticeable off south and southwest of Doniphan. In fact 
the country south and west of Doniphan tallies almost exactly with 
the descriptions given in the journals of the expedition; for instance 
Bourgmont mentions that a half league southwest of the Kansas vil 
lage a small river was passed. Independence creek is just about 
that distance southeast of Doniphan. In another account we find 
that shortly after leaving the village they "marched about a league 
and a half along a river coming from the southwest." Deer creek 
comes into the Independence near its mouth from a southwesterly 


Those who passed up the Missouri river after the old Indian 
town was deserted, noticed its ruins on the river bank and mention 
it in their journals. Although Bourgmont mentions only one vil 
lage of the Kansas, it will be noticed that the later explorers refer 
to two old village sites of this tribe. The Kansas no doubt had sev- 

" eral villages on the Missouri at different periods, though the "sec 
ond" village site mentioned by Lewis and Clark and others was the 
main, and perhaps the only, village of the tribe at the time of Bourg- 
mont s visit. It is hardly likely that the "first" or lower village was 
contemporaneous with the upper, lor in sue a wise Bourgmont 
would have mentioned it. On the contrary, it is more pro uable 
that the lower v^iage Cither belonged to an earlier period or occu 
pancy, or had not been such an extensive and long existent popu 
lace as the upper, for Lewis and Clark state that ih.-re were no 
traces of the former left, while the remains of the L^er were still 
visible to the extent that it appeared to have once been a large town. 
Traces of an Indian viLage may still be seen at the lower sue (Sajt 
creek valley), but it requires the scrutiny of an antiquarian to iden- 

"tify its location, the indica being scarcely visible to the casual eye. 
Perrin da Lac, in 1802, says that thirty-five miles above the 
mouth of the Kansas, on the Missouri river, his party found one of 
the old villages of the Kansas, and twenty-two. miles beyond this the 
other. Hon. J. V. Brower, in his "Missouri River" published in 1897 
gives the distance by river channel from the Kansas river to the 
Fort Leavenworth bridge as thirty-two miles, vvhich would make it 
just about thirtyfive miles to Salt creek where there are evidences 
of an Indian village site on the farm ot Mr. Thomas Daniels. From 
Salt creek to Doniphan, the distance by river channel is, approxi 
mately, somewhere in the neighborhood of twenty-two miles. 

"Three miles before we arrived at the last village," says Du 
Lac, "we percieved some iron ore." Along the bluffs, three miles 
below Doniphan, the rocks are impregnated to a considerable ex 
tent with iron. Lewis and Clark, in 1804, mention the remains of 
both of the old villages, the first t vventy-eight miles above Little 
River Platte, the second twenty-eight miles above the first. It might 
be incidentally stated that the slight variations in distances as given 
by the different explorers is accounted for by the fact that the chan 
nel mileage of the Missouri river does not remain the same for any 
long period, the stream shifting its course at frequent intervals. 

On July 4, 1804, Lewis and Clark discovered a stream about 
thirty yards wide, which they named Independence, in honor of the 


Typical Kansas Artifacts 

1. Discoidal Stone. 2. Flint Hoe. 3. Stone Pipe. 4. Flint Drill. 
5. Flint Knife. 6. Flint Tomahawk. 

day. To quote their journal, they "came along the bank of an ex 
tensive and beautiiul prairie, interspersed with copses of timber and 
watered by Independence creek. On this bank formerly stood the 
second village of the Kansas. From the remains it must have been 
a large town." "On this bank stood the village" signifies on the bank 
of the prairie, and not on the bank of Independence creek, for in an 
other place in their journal (p. 1253 Cone s Lewis and Clark) they 
debi^ncue a mile abuve Inuepeiiut^ice creek" as the situation of 
the old village If the village was anywhere within a mile of the 
Independence to the north, it must have been where Doniphan now 
stands, for that is the only desirable suuation f >r a i Indian villain, 
within that distance from the ceeek. Shortly after leaving the old 
village site Lewis and Clark passed a small stream which they call 
ed Yellow Ochre cree.v, from a bank of that mineral a little above 
it. About three miles above Doniphan, at Geary, there empties in 
to the Missouri a small stream called Brush Creek, which was doubt 
less the "Yellow Ochre" of Lewis and Clark s day, i jr me "bank" 
of that mineral from which they so named the stream is vis ible "a 
little above" the creek, as they stated. C. B. Roundy, of Geary, once 
sent some of that mineral subscance to be e id.nmed by experts and 
they pronounced it "ochre of poor quality." 

Sergent Floyd, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, in an indiv 
idual diary, speaks of Independence creek coming out of an "exten 
sive prairie, open and high, which may be seen six or seven miles 
below." Brackenridge, in 1811, also mentions the fine view of 
the prairies and the old village sire, which could be obtained below. 
The country about Doniphan may be seen very plainly from the 
Aiciiison biic!ge, and even as fai down as the bend of the river be 
low Atchison. John Bradbury, in his "Travels in the Interior of 
America," 1333-10-11, mentions goin^ ashore at the old Kansas vil 
lage and noting the ^reat fertility of tne soil and the abundance of 
hops, but is indefin ite as to its location. However taking into 
consideration the natural features of the country as depicted in that 
portion of his journal leading up to the old village site, they corre 
spond pretty closely to existing topographical conditions, and point 
consentaneously with the narratives of Lewis and Clark and others 
to Doniphan, as the seat of Kaw occupancy in Bourgmont s time. 
H. M. Brackenridge, in the journal of his voyage up the Missouri 
in 1811, mentions the old village as follows; "High prairies south 
west side continued under sail through another long stretch ( of 
prairie) and had a fine view of the old Kansas village at the upper 
end of it. It is high prairie, srmoth waving hills, perfectly green, 
with a few clumps of trees in the hollows. It was formerly a vil- 

lage of the old Kansas nation. But for the scarcity of wood this 
would be a delightful situation for a town. At this place the bend 
of the river rendered the wind unfavorable." He also mentions the 
old Indian pathways along the sides of the hills and down to the 
river. Luther Dickerson and other early settlers recall that these 
old Indian paths or trails were plainly visible, leading out in almost 
every direction from Doniphan in the early days, and some of them 
where not too much disturbed by cultivation, may yet be observed. 
Major Stephen H. Long, while on his celebrated expedition to the 
Rocky mountains in 1819-20, says that after leaving Isle au Vache, 
"we proceeded in the course of the day about twenty-three miles 
and encamped at night near the entrance of a small scream called 
Independence creek. A little above, (Independence creek), and on 
the south side of the river, is the site of an old Konza town, called 
formerly the village of the twenty-four." Major Lon^, in his jour 
nal and on his map, places the old village "a little above Independ 
ence creek," or at about the present townsite of Doniphan. Major 
Long is the only one of the early explorors who alludes to the old In 
dian town as the Village of the twenty-four." I have somewhere 
seen it alluded to as the "village of the Big Four." The reasons for 
these appelations seem to be obscure, or at least I can find no ex 
planation of them. Isle au Vache, or Cow island, is in the Missouri 
river, near the southern line of Atchison county. Councils were 
held with the Kaw Indians on this island in 1819, and later when 
th? tribe lived on the Kansas river. 

The late Hon. Luther Dickerson, who was generally known as 
the oldest inhabitant" of this region, says there can be no doubt 
about the site of Doniphan having been occupied by an Indian vil 
lage in prehistoric times. Mr. Dickerson came here in June, 1854, 
and often visited the present site of Doniphan before the pioneer 
settlers selected it as a townsite. He says that the old Indian lodge 
circles, with fire pits in the center, were plainly visible in many 
places in Doniphan in the early days. These, were especially notice 
able where the public school building now stands. The earth in 
many places was intermingled with charcoal, ashes, and other de 
bris of the Indian village. Mr. Dickerson says that as near as he 
can remember the rings or circles where the Indian wigwams stood 
and which were quite numerous, were about twenty feet in diameter 
and in the center of each was a cavity filled with ashes and char 
coal. Professor Say, who visited the Kansas Indians in their village 
near the present town of Manhatten in 1819, says that the ground 
area of each lodge was circular, and that the fireplace was a simple 
cavity in the center of the apartment. On the Kansas river, wher- 

ever the Kaws had their later day villages, these circles in the earth 
are still to be seen. 

Judge W. H. H. Curtis, of Troy, who was one of the early set 
tlers of Doniphan, in response to inquires, writes that from his own 
observations, as well as from the statements of the late James F. and 
John W. Forman, the Doniphan pioneers, he is convinced that Doni 
phan was the site of an important Indian village. "I have heard 
James F. Fonnan and ins Biuuici, Julm Vv r . Foniian, talk about the 
ancient village," says Mr. Curtis, and further adds that they were 
firm in the belief that the ancient Indian village existed there. The 
Forman brothers came to that vicinity as Indian trader? long before 
Kansas was open for settlement. They surveyed and platted the 
townsite of Doniphan. Mr. Curtis own observations lead him to 
believe that the ancient village "circled around the spot where Don 
iphan now stands; or more correctly speaking, the village must 
have been in the form of a crescent, extending from east to west, at 
the north outskirts of what is now the townsite proper . . . When 
a boy I saw many Indian relics near Doniphan," continues Mr. Cur 
tis, "and I know of many others who have found axes, arrow and 
spear heads, human bones, and what appear to have been old bury 
ing grounds both east and west of Doniphan." 

Isaac F. Weyer, the "village blacksmith" of Doniphan, who liv 
ed there nearly fifty years, also recalls having heard the Forman 
brothers speak about the remains of an ancient village at Doniphan 
and says he has always heard a tradition that there was once a 
large Indian town at or near that place. W. H. Nesbit, one of the 
founders of Doniphan, says that at an early day large masses of 
charcoal, pottery and other burnt substances were exposed by the 
caving or washing away of the banks of the small creek which 
flows through Doniphan. He also says that the rock shelters or 
small caverns in the sides of the high bluffs about Doniphan con 
tained the bones of Indians; with pottery vessels, arrowheads, etc. 
The late T. J. Ingals, of Atchison, who was as well acquainted 
around Doniphan as any other man, and who was a close observer 
along natural history and archaeolo iical lines, wrote me May 27, 
1904; "I should think from the number of graves and stone relics 
found in and about Doniphan that it was vastly populated at some 
time in the past. Not only on the George Brenner land, but through 
out the old townsite the loose stones scattered about over the sur 
face and even under the surface, show marks of fire." Mr. Ingels 
has done much prospecting for water and drilled many wells in that 
vicinity and had excellent opportunity for observation. The writer 
once found a lot of burned stones, together with burned earth and 

pottery fragments, exposed by the caving of the creek bank just 
south of the public school building in Doniphan. On another occas 
ion I found a hammer stone projecting from the bank nearly two 
feet below the surface. While strolling along the main street of 
Doniphan on October 19, 1903, 1 picked up three flint arrow points, 
and Observed numerous chips or spalls of flint that had washed 
from a small gully at one side of the thoroughfare. The late Rich 
ard Dempsey, an old resident, and for many years road supervisor 
in that vicinity, informed the writer that in making grades on the 
roads he had occasionally turned up baked clay, charcoal, pstshards 
and fragments of stone implements. When th j roadbed of the old 
A. & N. railroad was made through Doniphan in 1869 the workmen 
unearthed similar material and at the present time there is frequent 
ly picked up, from the dirt which was thrown out alon this grade, 
arrow points, hatchets, etc. 

The late Frank Kitzmiller, of Highland, under date of April 20, 
1894, wrote me: "I have been informed by several parties that many 
Indian relics have been found at Doniphan, and from what I can 
learn it must have been once occupied by an Indian village. I 
understand that the rubbish of the old tepees is occasionally met 
with in digging trenches and making other excavations. One man 
there has promised to bring me a lot of stone relics which he plow 
ed up in the town of Doniphan." Mr. Kitzmiller had an interesting 
collection oi Indian relics gathered in Doniphan county. Mrs. Jane 
Spencer says that in making excavations on her farm just north of 
town pottery has been unearthed. Mrs. Spencer came to Doniphan 
with her late husband in 1855. At that time there was evidence of 
an Indian graveyard on the land which they pre-empted and on 
which she still lives. Many wagonloads of loose limestones were 
hauled from a field on their farm. Sae has observed numerous Ind 
ian relics and has several in her possession now. Thomas Logan 
reports numerous evidences of Indian occupancy on his farm near 
Doniphan. James A. Dunning, of St. Joseph, Mo., formerly of Don 
iphan, writes that Indian relics were so very common there in the 
early days that but little attention was paid to them. "I have gath 
ered my hat full of arrowheads on the creek bank; also stone axes 
and war clubs by the dozens. Years after, in plowing over my fath 
er s farm, we have picked up beads and pottery, the latter being 
similar to that I have seen from the cliff dwellings/ Joseph Geis- 
endorf says he has found many stone relics on the same farm. 
Charles Kuch, the postmaster at Doniphan, says that the boys have 
gathered innumerable arrowpoints on the land occupied by the 
Brenner vinyards, and N. G. Brenner corroborates this statement 


and says he has found hundreds of them himself on the same ground 
Indian burial mounds and graves are numerous on the hills sur 
rounding Doniphan. External evidences of many of these sepulch- 
ers have been obliterated, but here and there may still be seen lime 
stone slabs set in the ground in regular order, or piled up irregular 
ly, to mark, the last resting place of some aboriginal denizen of 
Doniphan. In some instances these graves may belong to the Sac 
and Foxes, or other modern ludiaus, uut u is oellev^d that the ma 
jority of them belonged to the ancient Kaws. Rev. Isaac McCoy, a 
missionary among the Western Indians at an early day, speaking of 
the Kaw methods of burial, says: "They frequently deposited the 
dead on or near the surface and raised over the corpse a heap of 
stones." Hon. George P. Moorehouse, of Council Grove, who has 
seen and studied the Kavvs, when they lived at that place, says that 
he has often noticed their graves, usually on top of some near bluff 
or high ground, and that they were often covered w r it h slabs of lime 
stone. Mrs. Mary J. Forman, widow of tfie Doniphan pioneer, John 
W. Forman, writes from Canton, Mo.: "On the hill west of the 
John Forman residence (since owned by George Brenner) there 
were indications of an Indian graveyard, piles of rock seeming to 
have been used as monuments or to mark some place of note." Mrs. 
Jane Spencer mentions similar graves on her farm at an early day. 
L. Clem, who has lived in that vicinity about thirty years and who 
has hunted throughout that region, observed many such piles of 
stone when he first located there. Luther Dickerson says there are 
several small mounds on land belonging to J.P. Brown, of Atchison 
on the river bluffs south of Independence creek. H. J. Adams, of 
Leroy, Kas., a son of the iate Secretary Adams, of the Kansas His 
torical Society, who formerly lived near Doniphan, while digging a 
cellar on the crest of a river bluff south of Independence creek, in 
1868, exhumed the skeleton of an Indian. It was about two feet be 
low the surface and covered with stones. James Eylar reports sev 
eral graves just north of Doniphan, and in the same neighborhood 
"firepits on top of the river bluff, in which the charred bones resem 
bling those of human beings." He also mentions a grave on Inde 
pendence creek west of Doniphan in which was found a human 
skeleton, together. with a small headless image and some beads. 
There were also traces of fire in this grave. Further west, on the 
Auld farm, are other graves, near which have been found many 
stone axes. 

Several years ago the writer, accompanied by T. J. Ingels, of 
Atchison, and C. A. Bruner, of Oak Mills, opened a stone mound on 
the high hill west of Doniphan, but it had either been despoiled of 

its contents by relic hunters or else the descendents of the dead war* 
ior had removed his remains to another place, for not even a human 
bone remained in it. Early settlers recall having seen the Indians 
come to this place at an early day, and after weird ceremonies, ex 
hume the remains of dead Indians and carry them away. Where 
.they came from and whither they went was never learned. 

On another hill on the farm of John Myers, near the junction of 
Independence and Rock creeks, the writer, assisted by J. B. Loftin, 
an intelligent citizen of that vicinity, explored an Indian mound. 
This mound was originally covered with stones, but most of them 
had been removed by Mr. Meyers in cultivating th j land. The con 
tents of the mound consisted of human remains, badly charred by 
fire, pieces of burned wjod and charcoal, numerous ghss and por 
celain and bone beads, two silver (?) finger rings, a silver breast 
plate, fragments of silver ear bobs, fragments of a copper bracelet, 
fragments of an iron kettle, fragments of an old-fashion ?d decorated 
porcelain plate ; fragments of bone instruments, a piece of steel evi 
dently used as a fire striker, many flint spalls and some particles of 
vermillion, all in a confused mass. Everything indicated that this 
was the remains of a "scaffold" or "tree burial" which after tumbl 
ing down, had been swept by prairie fires and later gathered up and 
deposited, without regularity, in a stone sepulchre. 

Dr. R. S. Dinsmore, of Troy, Kansas, has gathered many fine 
Indian artifacts from the vicinity of Doniphan, and opened a small 
burial mound near the place that evidently had been opened before 
and despoiled of its contents. Dr. Dinsmore and M. E. Zimmerman 
and Edward Park, of White Cloud, have fine collections, mostly 
gathered in Doniphan County. 

The writer has examined many Indian village sites in Kansas, 
but there has never come under his observation a more ideal locat 
ion for a permanent seat of aboriginal habitation than at the old 
townsite of Doniphan. Situated about midway of the great west 
ern bend of the Missouri, or the grande detour of the Missouri, as 
the French voyageurs called it; encircled by a chain of high hills, 
with a gap on the east which afforded the villagers a splendid view 
of and easy access to the river, and through which they could read 
ily perceive the approach of an enemy on the water; while the over 
towering hills at almost every point of the compass provided natur 
al watch towers where they could guard against the enroachments 
of a foe from the broad prairie that stretches off in every direction; 
a small stream flowing through this natural basin, fed by several 
fine springs, afforded a constant supply of fresh water to the occu 
pants of the village, while just over the devide to the west and 


southwest three larger streams, one of them navigable for canoes, 
unite before mingling their limpid waters with the murky Missouri. 
Surrounded by every natural advantage and resource, Doniphan is 
an ideal dwelling place for either savage or civilized man. The old 
Kansas Herd Book thus describes it: "Doniphan stands where the 
corkscrew Missouri makes a sharp turn to the west and is hurled 
back upon itself by a high wooded bluff. To north and south rise 
heavily timbered bluffs, dipping to form the level bottom upon 
which the town lies nestled from the prevailing storm currents of 
winter." Hon. Sol Miller s famous historical edition of the Kansas 
Chief says that Doniphan is one of the finest natural townsites on 
the Missouri river. Brackenridge, one of the old -explorers, speaks 
of it as "a delightful situation for a town." 



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